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Music

When Classical Music Was an Alibi

Allied forces have been eager to “clear up” the reputations of musicians whose skills they valued, and even aided some in gliding by means of the denazification course of. On July 4, 1945, the soprano Elisabeth Schwarzkopf was requested to fill out a Fragebogen as a result of she was on the Salzburg register of Nationwide Socialists in Austria. Had the shape been deemed acceptable, the American army would have authorized her return to the stage.

However when the American intelligence officer overseeing her case, Otto von Pasetti, realized that she had lied on the shape, he destroyed it. The next day, she was requested to fill out one other one. Though it was not any extra correct, Pasetti accepted it as a result of Schwarzkopf’s standing as a celeb diva had satisfied him that “no different appropriate singer” was obtainable for main operatic performances. Shortly thereafter, she climbed right into a jeep pushed by an American officer, Lieutenant Albert van Arden, and was pushed 250 kilometers to Graz, Austria, to sing Konstanze in Mozart’s “Die Entführung aus dem Serail.”

After 1945, then, profession continuity was extra the norm than the exception. Denazification standing outlined instant employability however was just one consider musicians’ prospects. Artists trying to resume their careers readily recognized themselves as POWs, refugees, bombing victims, disabled troopers and widows, many going through housing and meals insecurity. Reference letters used postwar hardship as a justification for precedence consideration or tried to elucidate how an individual had been pulled into, as one put it, the “vortex” of Nazi politics. One baritone assured directors that though he had been detained in a jail camp for a number of years, he nonetheless “had the chance to apply.”

These claims of hardship simply slid into narratives of victimhood. Bombed live performance halls and opera homes in previously Nazi territories have been potent symbols of destruction and the need of rebuilding, but additionally enabled the main target to shift from Nazi atrocities to German struggling. On the opening of the rebuilt Vienna State Opera on Nov. 5, 1955, simply months after Williams’s debut in “Butterfly,” the conductor Karl Böhm — who had led concert events celebrating Hitler’s annexation of Austria in 1938 — was on the rostrum for the celebration. No Jewish survivors have been invited to take part.

Performances amid the rubble reignited a way of neighborhood and tried to rehabilitate classical music as inherently humanistic, common and uplifting after its supposed “corruption” by propagandistic use through the Nazi period. In “The German Disaster” (1946), the historian Friedrich Meinecke evoked the facility of German music as a restorative pressure: “What’s extra particular person and German than the good German music from Bach to Brahms?” For Meinecke, the nation’s music was redemptive, expressing the nationwide spirit whereas nonetheless possessing a “common Occidental impact.”

Some composers, inspired by the Allies, promoted the concept that modernist musical strategies have been significantly antifascist as a result of that they had been banned by the Nazis — an exaggeration each of Nazi officers’ stylistic understanding and of the extent of management they exerted over the humanities. Winfried Zillig, a German who composed within the 12-tone model, had many profession successes from 1933 to 1945, together with main opera premieres and a place in occupied Poland, granted as a reward for his operas’ political values.

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